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英语阅读中举例关系的应用
2019-11-07 15:15   作者:新航道   阅读量:

  有些学生在做题的时候常常会局限于定位或者同义替换这两种解题方式,忽略了条条道路通罗马,结合别的方法要点,不仅可以提高速度,还可以增加做题的准确率。


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  下面以几个例子说明一下。

  C11T3P1 的 第6题

  Silk used for many purposes

  -  e.g. evidence found of 6_________ made of silk around 168 AD

  学生是可以定位到这句话的 The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD.但是由于有些学生的语法不太好,不能判断出来这个空填的是名词,也不能判断出题目中的made of silk是这个空的后置定语。如果知道这个填的是丝绸做的什么,对应原文的silk名词作定语,填修饰的词就好了。现在我们也可以结合另一种方法。绝大多数学生都知道Silk used for many purposes的意思是丝绸有很多的用途。e.g.是在举例子说明其中的一种用途。那么对应原文找到例子前面的观点句,两句话都出现的词就是我们要的答案了。

  Fishing lines, bowstrings, musical instruments and paper were all made using silk. The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD.

  所以这一题填的就是paper。

  再比如说还是C11T3P1这一篇里的第9题

  20th century: 9__________ and other manmade fibres cause decline in silk production

  这一题学生能够识别出来是有并列关系的,出现了and这个词。通过简化题目关系为A和其他的B。能判断出来A是属于B这个大的分类的。比如举个简单的例子“苹果和其他水果”,A就是B里的一个例子。通过辨别这一关系,结合特殊定位词20th century和定位词manmade fibres以及silk production。很容易定位到这一句:

  Then in the twentieth century, new manmade fibres, such as nylon, started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products, such as stockings and parachutes. 找到such as这个举例词,答案nylon就很明显了。

  这个考点在最近的基本剑桥雅思真题上也有反复出现。

  比如C13T2P1的第5题

  known as a treatment for 5 _________ and other health problems

  识别这一题填的就是健康问题的一个例子,找到原文这句话:Cinnamon was also reported to have health benefits, and was thought to cure various ailments, such as indigestion. 举例such as 后面这个indigestion就是我们的答案了。

  再比如说C12T7P3的第31题也是这个关系的表达,只不过原文和题目的表达跟之前的那个掉了个儿。题目是举例词such as…,原文是A and other B。

  Activity in this part of the brain is associated with the expectation of reward ‘stimuli’ such as ___________.

  题目出现了such as,非常明显的举例关系词。通过定位词定位到这句话:What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate – a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli – were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favourite moments in the music. 文中是food and other ‘reward’ stimuli,就比较容易得出food这个答案了。

  单选题一般是学生比较头疼的题目,我们还可以看看举例关系在单选题里的运用:

  比如C11T2P3 27.In the second paragraph, the writer refers to a shape-matching test in order to illustrate

  A. the subjective nature of art appreciation

  B. the reliance of modern art on abstract forms.

  C. our tendency to be influenced by the opinions of others.

  D. a common problem encountered when processing visual data.

  题目说作者提及这个test为了阐明什么,回原文找到这个test的时候,When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image, for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same. 大多数学生是根据定位的这句话里they see others doing the same得出的C选项。此外我们也可以根据写作中举例论证的方法通常是论点+例子,找到例子前一句话We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd.  也表明人们倾向于随大流。得到C选项。

  我们可以再看看C13T1P3的31题

  31 The writer refers to the paintings of a chair as an example of computer art which

  A achieves a particularly striking effect.

  B exhibits a certain level of genuine artistic skill.

  C closely resembles that of a well-known artist.

  D highlights the technical limitations of the software.

  通过出题顺序和定位词chair可以找到这句话。Some of the Painting Fool’s paintings of a chair came out in black and white, thanks to a technical glitch. This gives the work an eerie, ghostlike quality. Human artists like the renowned Ellsworth Kelly are lauded for limiting their colour palette - so why should computers be any different? 大多学生会误选成D这个选项,因为文中有technical这个词。但是由于词汇量的不足,比如不认识关键词renowned 和lauded,也不能完全读懂例子的意思。这个时候我们就可以再看看例子前的这句话:Software bugs can also lead to unexpected results.对应的就是A选项达到一个令人震惊的效果。

  再看看C10T1P3的第29题

  29.The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to

  A. inspire creative thinking.

  B. generate concise writing.

  C. promote loyalty to a group.

  D. strengthen commitment to an idea.

  这一题学生可以定位到这句话:It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Corn Flakes because….’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to believe it. 句子和段首(Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. )都有这个write导致很多学生就误选了B这个选项。但是我们根据题目知道是一个例子之后再看看例子前吗的这句话。Cialdini cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. D选项强化了对一个观点的认同与原文deepens every individual’s engagement in the project表达的意思一致。

  希望大家之后再做题的时候遇到举例关系的考点时,可以扩大阅读范围,关注例子前面的论点,提炼意思得出答案。


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