您好,欢迎访问新航道官网托福频道!

在线咨询

托福 (TOEFL)

奏响中国托福培训最强音

2019新航道春季班

您当前的位置 » 新航道官网 » 托福 » 托福阅读 » 文章正文

搞定托福细节题的两项能力

2019-03-07 12:06     供稿单位: 新航道    

出国英语考试有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思阅读评分标准 托福阅读评分标准 雅思和托福的区别

  托福阅读中的细节题是10类题型中出题占比较高的题型,每篇阅读文章为3-4道题目。这类题目考察学生的定位能力,筛选信息的能力。有的同学在做细节题的时候,喜欢通读全段,这样浪费了宝贵的时间,还往往容易掉进陷阱选项里。今天我们一起来学习一下如何在细节题中使用定位技巧和找核心词,中心句找出细节题的正确打开方式。

 

  01.定 位 能 力

  托福阅读中的定位能力(locating information)是托福阅读考试的必备技巧之一。具体说来,需要寻找定位词,回到段落里找到具体的信息句,之后进行句意的理解,从而做出选择。常见的定位词有人名,专有名词,术语(term),固定搭配和不容易替换的词语。因为前面所说的几类都容易应用,我们举一个术语定位词的例子。

 

  (一)术语定位词

 

  首先,很多同学会困惑,术语是什么?a word or phrase used to describe a thing or to express a concept, especially in a particular kind of language or branch of study。术语指的是一个知识领域专有的概念。托福阅读有一条重要原则是:无背景差异阅读。这条原则的意思是为了保证考试内容对每位考生的公平性,对于术语都会进行解释。这种解释形式一是glossary,第二种就是下面这道题所见到的形式:

  The upper timberline, like the snow line, is the highest in the tropics and the lowest in the Polar Regions. It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics. Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees from the timberline. Species of birch, for example, may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.(翻译:上行树带界线,和雪线一样,在热带最高,在极地最低。从极地地区的海平面到干燥的亚热带地区的海拔 4 500 米处以及 潮湿的热带地区海拔 3 500 米至 4 500 米处都有上行树带界线。树带界线内通常是常绿树,它们和处于上行树带界线处极端恶 劣环境中生长的落叶树木相比,具有一定的优势。然而,在部分地区也有由落叶阔叶林组成的树带界线。例如,在喜马拉雅的 部分地区,桦树就在树带界线上。)

  The paragraph supports which of the following statements about deciduous trees?

  A They do not exist at the upper timberline.

  B They cannot grow in cold climates.

  C They do not require as much moisture as evergreens do.

  D They are less likely than evergreens to survive at the upper timberline.

  解析:其中对于deciduous trees 落叶树 进行了术语解释,those that lose their leaves,那些掉叶子的树木。这道题目可以选择 deciduous trees作为定位词,因为术语的专业性,在原文中一般不会被替换。因此,回到原句中进行定位,找到了两处。第一处Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline树带界线内通常是常绿树,它们和处于上行树带界线处极端恶 劣环境中生长的落叶树木相比,具有一定的优势。 第二处是There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees from the timberline. 然而,在部分地区也有由落叶阔叶林组成的树带界线. 比较两句,第二处没有信息含量,而第一处的信息将落叶树和常绿树做了比较,是可以得出有用信息的。因此,这道题目通过术语定位,找出了含有deciduous treede 重要信息句,最终选择D选项

  拓展:我们再来一个林带的背景补充。地理知识如植被的种类和气候的类型都是托福阅读常考内容。

 

 

 

上面的图形介绍的是拉丁美洲的气候植被,有:

  Tropical rain forest 热带雨林

  subtropical evergreen forest 亚热带常绿林

  temperate deciduous forest 温带落叶林

  Chaparral or Mediterranean scrub 丛林或地中海灌木

  temperate grassland 温带草原

  semi dessert and dessert 半干旱和沙漠

  tundra苔原

  Ice sheet 冰盖

 

 

  (二) 认清陷阱选项的坑

  托福阅读的平均做题时间是每道题目60sec—90sec之间。在时间的压力下,很容易在慌乱中选择了陷阱选项。往往陷阱选项会出现信息的错位,原文原词重现,虚假比较,使得选项出的极为有水准。很多同学在做题的时候,认为托福阅读所给的段落短,不用定位,可以进行通读,或者有些同学定位之后因为生词不认识,所以选择段落通读。这样会产生一个问题,所看信息越多,越容易掉进命题官的陷阱里。从认知语言学的角度来说,我们的大脑在快速浏览信息的时候总是能够记住一些熟悉的词语或短语,在看选项的时候,恰恰有一个选项集合了浏览时记住的词语,这样恰恰掉进了迷惑选项里。我们来看一道题目,这道题目选自TPO Infantile Amnesia 婴幼儿期记忆丧失 一文中:

  Paragraph 5: A third likely explanation for infantile amnesia involves incompatibilities between the ways in which infants encode information and the ways in which older children and adults retrieve it. Whether people can remember an event depends critically on the fit between the way in which they earlier encoded the information and the way in which they later attempt to retrieve it. The better able the person is to reconstruct the perspective from which the material was encoded, the more likely that recall will be successful. (翻译:第三种可能的解释认为婴幼儿健忘症与婴儿储存信息的方式和成年后进行回忆的方式不相容有关。人们是否能够回忆起一 件事情的关键在于这两种方式的匹配程度。两种方式越匹配,越有助于人们成功回忆之前发生的事情。)

  Paragraph 6: This view is supported by a variety of factors that can create mismatches between very young children's encoding and older children's and adults' retrieval efforts. The world looks very different to a person whose head is only two or three feet above the ground than to one whose head is five or six feet above it. Older children and adults often try to retrieve the names of things they saw, but infants would not have encoded the information verbally. General knowledge of categories of events such as a birthday party or a visit to the doctor's office helps older individuals encode their experiences, but again, infants and toddlers are unlikely to encode many experiences within such knowledge structures. (翻译:事实上,很多因素会导致婴幼儿储存信息的方式和成年人进行回忆的方式不匹配。对于一个头离地面两三尺的孩子来说, 这个世界与那些稍大点的孩子眼中的世界不尽相同。长大后的孩子和成人经常试图回忆那些他们曾经见过的事物的名字,但在 他们的幼儿时期时尚未对此进行语言化的信息储存。人们对类似生日聚会或者拜访医生诊所类似事件的分类常识有助于人们记 忆他们的经历,但是,婴幼儿时期的孩子们似乎缺乏这些知识结构来帮助他们储存信息。)

  

 

  10. According to paragraphs 5 and 6, one disadvantage very young children face in processing information is that they cannot

  A process a lot of information at one time

  B organize experiences according to type

  C  block out interruptions

  D  interpret the tone of adult language

  这个题目的难度体现在,如果不定位,需要读两段内容。看得越多越久,越容易在选项里无法决断。通读两段之后发现,文章将婴幼儿和大孩子和成人的很多方面比较,而不是单一陈述婴幼儿的编码信息的情况。我们可以选择定位词 young children回文章中寻找信息,找到了两处。第一处:Older children and adults often try to retrieve the names of things they saw, but infants would not have encoded the information verbally. (大孩子和成人经常试图回想他们看见的东西的名字,但是婴幼儿不能够语言编码信息。)第二处:General knowledge of categories of events such as a birthday party or a visit to the doctor's office helps older individuals encode their experiences, but again, infants and toddlers are unlikely to encode many experiences within such knowledge structures.( 事件分类的大概知识,如生日聚会或去医生那里帮助大一些的个体编码他们的经验,但是再一次地,婴儿和小孩子是不可能用如此的知识结构编码很多的经验。)

  

  我们再来看一下选项:1.一次处理很多信息;2.根据类型组织经验;3.阻断打扰 4.理解成人语言的语调。我们定位的两处都提到了encode information,第一处只是说小孩子不能够编码,给的信息不够充分,而第二处给的信息更加具体,根据知识结构编码经验。因此,这道题目选择B。这样看来,虽然题目说的是根据两段的内容,实际上定位后,我们只是看了第6段的内容而已。有些同学会存在疑惑,那么第5段在做题时的价值和意义在哪里?这就引出了我们接下来要讲解的一个重要知识点。

  上半部分结束啦,为了便于大家学习消化~明天继续关注我们的下半部分哈~

 

  

分享到:
新航道,英语成功之道。第一时间获取新航道英语学习资料和新鲜资讯,请在微信公众账号中搜索「新航道英语」或者「xhdenglish」,或用手机扫描左方二维码,即可获得新航道每日精华内容推送和最新英语学习经验分享,并参与新航道举办的各项活动。
责编:梁曦丹