# 如何用逻辑解决托福阅读词汇题难题！

2019-03-21 17:46     供稿单位: 新航道

托福阅读的词汇题基本的出题形式为The word "XX" is closest in meaning to which of following?，每篇文章的题目数量一般为3-5题，所以3篇文章加起来总数接近总题目的三分之一了，绝对是一个不容同学们小觑的题型。并且2018年托福阅读的词汇题依然是考试的中心所指，在这里我们主要告诉同学们碰到题干中所考察的生词不认识如何利用逻辑有效解题，主要有以下四种逻辑关系解题。

（1）并列关系

并列关系：常见并列关系词：and，or，also，too，as well，other，another，

请看例句：

But it is a wrong interpretation; fossils are frequently so dense because the pores and other spaces in the bone have become filled with minerals taken up from the surrounding sediments.

The word "pores" is closest in meaning to which of following?

A joints

B tissues

C  lines

D holes

此题目中的pore如果同学们不认识的话，就去找附近有无逻辑关系来帮助解题。看到最近的and 连接pores 和other spaces两个平行结构，前后相对应，因此pores的意思应为some space，选项中的D 的holes与此意义最接近，为正确答案。

（2）转折关系

转折关系：常见转折关系词：but，however，yet，by contrast，on the contrary

in fact，actually等

We might expect that early artistic efforts would be crude, but the cave paintings of Spain and southern France show a marked degree of skill. So do the naturalistic paintings on slabs of stone excavated in southern Africa.

The word “ marked ” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A considerable

B surprising

C limited

此题目中的marked如果同学们不认识的话，我们在附近会发现它所在句子和上一句形成转折关系，那么marked的意思与crude为直接相反。极为程度高的，明显的意思。选项中的A 的considerable（可观的）与此意义最接近，为正确答案。

（3）举例关系

举例关系，常见关系词e.g.，for example，such as，for instance，like，including

例如：

Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not.

10. The word distort in the passage is closest in meaning to

A  Mistrust

B  Misinterpret

C  Criticize

D  Resent

此题所考察的生词distort所造句子后紧随一个例句进行解释其意思，意为：一些人会假想别人会有意伤害他们，而实际上别人根本没这么想。也就是误解了别人的动机，那么B选项意思最为接近。

（4）因果关系

因果关系，常见因果关系词：表原因：for，because，since，as ，due to，owing to，result from等 表结果：so，thus，hence，therefore，so...that, lead

to, contribute to, cause, bring about, generate 等等。

例如：In 1815 he published the first modern geological map, “A Map of the Strata of England and Wales with a Part of Scotland,” a map so meticulously researched that it can still be used today.

5. The word “meticulously” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A carefully

B quickly

C frequently

D obviously

“meticulously” 前后存在一个由so...that构成的因果关系（如此...以至于），结果为现在还能用200年前的地图，那么肯定是因为这个地图比较有用，非常好，只有A选项carefully（详细地）的意思最接近，方向也是一致的。

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