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雅思写作议论文写作表达观点后字数还是不达标,有什么扩展方法?
2021-05-13 17:46   作者:王洪泰 Ted   阅读量:

  30分钟的时间内无法完成独立写作是一个让众多托福考生头疼的问题。

  很多同学写完自己的观点之后发现字数还是没有达标,而此时已经无话可说只能草草地下结论。

  这个时候我们不妨从观点的对立面出发,写一个让步段


  让步段的好处 

  让步段的好处在于可以少想一个理由,并且可以纯说理,因此比较容易操作。

  在《新托福写作真经4》当中,文章的让步段通常来说都是在承认反方观点之后,用自己的两个观点进行驳斥。

  比如教材76页中讨论大学生是否要做兼职。

  文章给出的两个观点是持反对意见的,认为上大学的目的就是学习以及兼职与专业无关。

  后面给出了让步,即做兼职是步入社会的过渡,但是如果学不好,做与专业无关的事情则会影响到将来。


  如果持有同意的观点,也可以用类似的方法去论证。认为做兼职可以培养一些好的品质,积累经验。之后承认学习也很重要,不过通过兼职培养出来的品质和经验也是很有帮助的。

  很多同学可能会想用一些不一样的观点去反驳让步段。不过这也要看具体的题型和具体的思路。

  如果让步段承认好处,那么反驳的时候可以直接用坏处去反驳。但是,如果让步段承认的是弊端,还可以另辟蹊径。

  今天给大家分享此类情况下反驳的方法。


   对弊端驳斥的三种方法 

  让步段结构:承认漏洞+堵漏

  在这里我们讨论托福议论文的两种题型:A模式和AB模式(题目中有几件事)

  例题1:同意不同意:学生该做兼职

  例题2:二选一:跟导游旅行好还是自由行更好

  A模式的让步段(前半段—承认漏洞):选A;那么A也有缺点

  AB模式的让步段(前半段—承认漏洞):选A;那么A也有缺点;或者B也有优点

  (如果是三选一的题型也是用类似的方法,区别就是还要多讨论一个点)不过,让步结束之后还要进行驳斥,即所谓的“堵漏”

  三种“堵漏”方式:

  1.解决方案

  2.次要方面

  3.换种思维


  

  “我爱你”因为:1.颜值高;2.才华横溢

  *让步段:“承认漏洞”不过你性格不好,但是…

  “堵漏”

  1. 我会改造你—解决

  2. 我不在乎—次要

  3.无法驾驭也是你的魅力—换一个思路

  在思路清晰之后,就可以下笔开始写文章了↓↓

  让步段常用句型:

  *段首:Admittedly, I am not saying /denying that…

  However,… 也就是要先承认漏洞

  驳斥的句型:

  *解决方案:However, as long as I (we, government, society)…, the problems above will be perfectly solved.

  *次要方面:However, on balance, the issues above seem to be minor factors because…

  *换种思维:However, if we look at this problem from a different angle, a favourable side of it can be found:…

  每一种类型的反驳对应不同的句型,供大家参考。


   具体题目解析 

  接下来我们来看具体的题目:


  题目一

  1. In some countries, teenager have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.

  很显然题目中只涉及到对于做兼职这一件事情的讨论。

  *观点:Students should take part-time jobs.

  *理由1:Students can make some pocket money to reduce their parents’ financial burden.

  *理由2:Some working experience will be accumulated, which is beneficial for their future career.

  让步:这样会影响学习,不过这个问题可以解决

  *让步段:Admittedly, I am not saying that students’ taking part-time jobs is impeccable. For instance, too much time on part-­time job will cause a decline in their academic performance. However, as long as they manage to strike a balance between part-­time job and academic study, the issues above will be perfectly solved. (解决方案)

  在这里,如果想要具体展开,也可以就如何平衡工作和学习给出具体的方法。


  题目二

  2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid at least as much as doctors, lawyers or business leaders are paid.

  *观点:应该一样高

  *理由1:This could attract more talents to devote to education.

  *理由2:Teachers could focus on fostering students.

  让步:学校或者政府会面临巨大的财政压力,可这是次要的


  *让步段:Admittedly, I am not denying that a dramatic rise in teachers’ salary may bring about undesirable results. For instance, school authority will face great financial burden and may cut down on its investment on campus facilities. However, the issue above seems to be insignificant if the school lacks wonderful teachers. If well-rounded students can be educated, it is worthwhile to spend so much money on increasing teachers’ pay.(次要方面)

  如果想具体展开,可以把学校面临的问题具体化以及人才如何回馈社会。


  题目三(二选一的题目)

  3. When you are assigned an important presentation for work or school a month in advance, and you are required to write a presentation. Which way do you prefer? 1) To start to work on it right away, so you can work on it a little bit every day. 2) To wait until the end of the month when you have a good idea about the presentation.

  *观点:立刻做,每天做一点

  *理由1:Students can have enough time to revise and search for appropriate materials. (high quality)

  *理由2:Students can make good preparation for speech.

  让步:可能不符合要求,但是换个角度来看可以获得宝贵的经验


  *让步段:Admittedly, I am not saying that working on the assignment right away is flawless. For instance, people may try various thoughts popping out in their minds at the beginning and what they choose to write may prove inappropriate in the end. However, if viewed from a different angle, a favorable side of it can be discovered: making mistakes is also a road to success, because we can find the best solution by trials and errors. (换种思路)

  如果想展开,还可以进行对比,比如在后来再次做presentation的时候避免了之前的问题并且取得了很好的效果。


  以上就是对于弊端进行驳斥的三种方法。大家都学会了吗?


  今日作业

  做个测试来检验一下吧——

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  Parents should give children studying in primary schools or middle schools a small amount of pocket money weekly.

  参考:

  支持:培养小孩的理财能力/更好应对一些突发状况如肚子饿了,下雨父母没来接等等

  反对:可能会乱花钱—可以解决


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