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首页 > 雅思 > 雅思资讯 > 雅思综合 > 雅思长难句解析(3) | 多层并列

雅思长难句解析(3) | 多层并列

2022-09-16     作者 :    

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雅思长难句解析

每周一期,专业老师解读

成功就是日复一日的积累

 本期作者:郑百慧

例句1

Some have claimed that major glacier-fed rivers changed their course, dramatically affecting the water supply and agriculture; or that the cities could not cope with an increasing population, they exhausted their resource base, the trading economy broke down or they succumbed to invasion and conflict; and yet others that climate change caused an environmental change that affected food and water provision.(剑 13 Test3 Passage3)

1) 结构分析

层次一: 

主句:some have claimed that.......(主句①); or that..............(主句②); and yet others that........(主句③)(并列3个从句)

层次二: 

主句①内部: 

主体:major glacier-fed rivers changed their course

修饰:affecting.............agriculture (doing短语做状语,表示前面的结果)

主句②内部: the cities...population, they exhausted...base, the trading economy...or they....conflict;

(逗号并列三个整句)

主句③内部:

主体:climate change....change

修饰:that affected.....provision(that定语从句,修饰 environmental change)

结构总结: 宾从①【嵌套doing状语】+宾从②【嵌套3个并列句】+宾从③【嵌套定从】

2) 译文分析:红体字代表主干,蓝体字代表宾从主体,括号代表宾从修饰

一些人声称:冰川融汇的河流改变了河道,(因而大地影响了水供给和农业生);另一些人认为:城市无法处理逐渐增长的人口,耗尽了资源,贸易经济崩解,遭遇外来侵略和冲突;还有一些人认为:气候变化导致了环境变化,(从而影响了食物和水源供)

3) 重点词汇:

claim:  声称 认为(=assert) 

glacier-fed:冰川补给的

course:  ①课程 ②道路 ③过程。这里选用②,表示河道

water supply:水供给 

agriculture:农业(=farming)

dramatically:极大的(=tremendously)

exhaust:耗尽(=deplete/used up/run out of)

succumb to:屈服于(submit to/yield to/surrender to)

例句2

What is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate -- a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other 'reward' stimuli -- were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants' favourite moments in the music(剑 12 Test 7 Passage 3)

1) 结构分析

层次一: 

主句:What is rather more significant is the finding【what主从+系表结构】

从句:that the dopamine neurons.......music【that引导的同位从,解释finding的内容】

层次二:

主句内部:What is rather more significant is the finding

从句内部:

主体:the dopamine neurons were at their most active

修饰①:in the dopamine neurons(介词短语做定语,修饰caudate) 

修饰②:

1)-a region of the brain........-(俩破折号插入语,解释caudate)

2)involved in learning....and in anticipating....stimuli

 (1. done做定语,修饰region;2. and 并列两doing短语,表示region两作用)

修饰③:around 15 seconds before....music(介短做状语,限定active,表时间)

结构总结:主句【嵌套主从】 + 同位从【嵌套介短+done+插入+并列】

2) 译文分析:红体字代表主干,括号代表修饰

更为重要的一项发现在于:(实验对象在听音乐时),(尾状核中的)多巴胺神经元(会在最喜欢的乐曲部分到来的前15 秒左右)达到最活跃的状态。(尾状核是大脑区域,负责学习刺激-应激关联)

3) 重点词汇:

significant:①重要的(=important)②显著的 与众不同的(=remarkable)

stimulus:刺激物

stimulus-response:刺激应激

announce:宣称 宣布

anticipating:预测(=predict project estimate)

participants:参与者(指实验对象=subjects volunteers)

例句3

To make it easier to plan motoring holidays, the site catalogued the most popular driving routes in the country, highlighting different routes according to the season and indicating distances and times (剑 13 Test 1 Passage 1)

1) 结构分析:

层次一:

主句: the site catalogued the most popular driving routes

修饰①:in the country【介短做定语,修饰driving routes】

修饰②:highlighting........and indicating.....times【and并列两doing短语,修饰整个主句,伴随】

修饰③:to make.....holiday 【to do做状语,修饰整个主句,表目的】  

层次二:

修饰②内部:according to the season(doing做状语,修饰highlight,表方式)

结构总结:to do目的 +主句【嵌套介短定】+ 两doing并列【嵌套doing状】

易错点: indicating有同学会误以为跟according to并列,从语法角度来说可以与according to并列一起修饰routes,也可以跟highlighting并列一起修饰主句。但是从语义上来看,还是选择后者,因为如果是前者那么就不用加indicating了,直接 according to different seasons and distances and times即可。

2) 译文分析:红体字代表主干,括号代表修饰

(为了更容易计划驾驶假期),该网站编目了(该国最流行的)驾驶路线,(根据季节显示了不同路线,还显示了距离和时长)

3) 重点词汇:

catalog:v. 编目 列举 n. 目录

highlight:v. 标亮 显示 强调

indicate:v. 表明 显示


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