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托福考试中让人掉以轻心的“言外之意…”

2019-02-26 09:40     供稿单位: 新航道    

出国英语考试有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思阅读评分标准 托福阅读评分标准 雅思和托福的区别

  说起托福考试,大家一定不会陌生。自上世纪八十年代进入中国以来,去美国留学的学生要做的第一件事,就是准备托福考试。

  这个考试考的很全面,听说读写一样不落,但是当你对它有所了解之后,你会发现听力不敢说是最重要的,那也一定是第二重要的。

  听力,口语,写作三个部分都在考察听力能力,不管是细节,还是主旨,亦或是言外之意,只有考生做不对的,没有ETS想不到的。

 

  根据官方指南(OG)的叙述,听力考的是两个基本能力:

  ● 一是字面意思,涉及细节题,主旨题等;

  ● 二是非字面意思,涉及作者意图题,重听题等等。

  要搞定第一个方面,提高听力能力是最优解;要搞定第二个方面,仅凭听力能力,严谨的说,是不够的。尤其是作者态度题出现在很多讲座或者对话的最后一题,看起来一成不变,人畜无害,实则花样挺多,特会给自己加戏。

  如下,让我们来浅析作者态度题。

 

  第一,作者态度题典型提问方式:

  1、What is the professor's opinion of ?

  2、What can be inferred about the student when he/she says this (reply)?

  3、What is the professor's attitude about/toward...?

  4、What does the man/woman mean when he/she says this?

  ※ tip:作者态度题的题干里多半有opinion,attitude这类词,此外有的问法里面会有infer,imply 这类词,需注意和其他题型作区分。

 

  第二,作者态度题的答案常常出现在:

  1、结尾

  2、各类假设,理论的后面

  3、师生对话处

  4、语调变化的地方

  ※ tip:在这些出题可能性很高的地方,大家需要非常仔细地听文本。

 

  第三,作者态度题的答题技巧:

  作者态度题的解题技巧与语境理解有关系,不要拘泥于一句话的表面意思。思路大致可分为两种:

  A. 为在文中直接表明观点态度

  1. 例如通过语音语调判断

  (上扬表示情绪惊讶,下降通常表示怀疑态度):

  ※ tip:这类题目需要大家从语调上做出判断,TPO 里面有不少这样的题。

  TPO16 L4 (Script)

  ● Student

  They actually broke them? That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn't it?

  ● Professor

  Yes, if only they had known.

 

  17. What does the student imply when she says this?

  A.It is unfortunate that people in the 19th century destroyed old stained-glass windows.

  B.Stained-glass windows made in the 19th century are more beautiful than those made earlier.

  C.It was necessary for people in the 19th century to break stained-glass windows.

  D.Stained-glass windows made in the 19th century are more valuable today than windows in previous centuries.

  解析:学生在原文说到 That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn't it? 的时候,最后的语调很明显是上扬的,属于反话正话,此外,教授的回应也呼应了学生的负面态度,所以对应答案 A。

 

  2. 通过形容词判断:

  TPO23 L1 (Script)

  Well, scientists have recently analyzed the inscriptions on the mechanism and re-examine the other cargo in the ship wreck, and the evidence makes an absolute casethat this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E. What makes that so fascinating is that before we found the Antikythera Mechanism, the earliest device we had that could track the Sun and moon like this was invented over 1,000 years later. So when this was first found, people literally would not believe it. Some of my colleagues insisted it had to have been made well after 100 B.C.E. But this physical evidence was conclusive. It was that old.

 

  8. What is the professor's attitude about the proposition that the Antikythera Mechanism is over two thousand years old?

  A.She is confident that the dating is accurate.

  B.She is sure the dating will be revised in the future.

  C.She is surprised that the dating remains inconclusive.

  D.She believes that additional testing will be needed to confirm the dating.

  解析:作者在原文提到 the evidence makes an absolute case that this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E.后面在转折词but 后继续提到 the physical evidence is conclusive. 也就是”absolutely, conclusive “ 这些词都体现出作者对于它的年龄分析是肯定的。当然professor在陈述这些情况的时候语音语调有明显的升华,( 暗示着大家这是一个出题点,速记的时候要有敏感度)。 因此答案选A。

  ※ tip:类似的形容词,能够表达作者态度的,这里略作补充:

  ●肯定态度 (positive): favorable, approval, enthusiastic, supportive

  ●否定态度(negative):disapproval, dissatisfied, objection, opposition,critical, compromising, concerned

  ●怀疑态度 (doubtful): suspicious, incredulous, skeptical, questionable

  ●客观态度(objective):neutral,impartial,disinterested,unprejudiced,unbiased, detached

 

  B. 间接表示观点态度

  ※ tip:有的时候,说话人会通过委婉的方式表达自己的观点,目的是为了体现出自己的观点显得更加公允,不偏激。这种观点态度一般是通过迂回的句型表现出来。

  TPO24 L1 (Script)

  I heard some great examples of this on the television program on crocodiles last week. Anyone catch it? It had a few interesting bits. But you know, uh, you have to be careful, think critically. Sometimes I don't know where these shows find their experts.

 

  9. What is the professor's opinion about the television program that she mentions?

  A She is concerned about the accuracy of some of the information the experts provided.

  B She is hopeful that the class will be able to discuss it.

  C.She thinks it was overly critical of some recent theories about crocodiles.

  D.She is surprised that it did not include more examples of crocodile communication.

  解析:从前面几句话来看,作者觉得电视中关于鳄鱼的节目是有点意思的。但是之后她的语气有明显的停顿 (暗示出题点),并在转折之后表示希望同学们careful,critically,即仔细点,犀利一些,想想这些节目从哪儿找来的专家,这体现出作者对这些节目的质疑,因此答案是A选项,值得注意的是,此题中的C选项虽然有critical 这个词,但是它的意思是指“电视节目过于 critical了,有悖于原文的意思,不能选。

  综上所述,我们在解决作者态度题的时候:

  ● 一是要学会预先判断出题点

  ● 二是要关注语调,表态度的形容词

  ● 三是要仔细分析选项,避开陷阱。

  希望这些能够给读者带来一些帮助。

 

 

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