1．begin: conclude 开始:结束
Conclusive: initiative 的：一开始的
Given the__ state of the published evidence, we did not argue here that exposure to low-level microwave energy is either hazardous or safe.
2．beleaguer: delight /mollify/sooth使烦恼:使愉悦
Her promotional tour was____ by missteps, but the increasing appreciation for her works suggests that effects of these blunders were___.
3． belie：represent 掩饰：呈现
注意！belie的这个意思：to prove to be false <the latest information belies the old theory，这则的信息证明古老的理论是错误的>＝disprove
What most__ the magazine’s critics is the manner in which its editorial opinions are expressed—too often as if only an idiot could see things any other way.
4．benignant: vicious 仁慈的：恶的
The depiction of the__ wolf is largely a misconception; wolves are__ creatures that prefer to run in packs.
(A) howling, noisy
(B) maternal, shy
(C) lone, social
(D) vicious, dangerous
(E) hungry, famished
flora植物群，poultry 家禽，gaggle 鹅群
5．berate: commend /praise严厉指责: 称赞
6．blight: cause to be energetic 使枯萎:使有活力
blighted: hale/robust/sound/unblemished 枯萎的，毁灭的:强壮的，健壮的
7．blunt: whet 使变钝:使磨快，使兴奋
8．boor: civil person粗鲁的人:有教养的人
9．boundary: unrestrained 边界:无限制的
10．brevity: lengthiness/expansion 简短:冗长/延长
The author___ the last act of her play to appease those critics who__ the work for its brevity.
(A) eliminated, extolled
(B) condensed, censured
(C) expanded, disparaged
(D) intensified, glorified
(E) rearranged, endorsed
11．（1）brilliance: dullness 光辉:迟钝
（2）bereave ：bestow 剥夺：给予
If people continually suppress their impulse to complain, whether the vexation is ------- or grave, they will appear to be automatons, ------- feeling.
(A) fluid . . defined by
(B) severe . . bereft of
(C) deserving . . incapable of
(D) frivolous . . consumed by
(E) trivial . . devoid of
12．bristle: cower 发怒:畏缩
13．bungle: bring off 失败:大成功
14．buoyant: sink 有浮力的:下沉
15．burgeoning: waning 迅速生长的:慢慢衰减的
Some interactive computer games are so elaborately contrived and require such___ strategies that only the most___ player can master them.
(A) Byzantine, adroit
(B) nefarious, conscientious
(C) devious, lackadaisical
(D) onerous, slipshod
(E) predictable, compulsive
17．cacophony: euphonious 嘈杂的:悦耳的
18．calcify: make malleable 使钙化:使有延展性
Given the___ nature of wood, the oldest totem poles of the Northwest Coast Indians eventually fell to decay; only a few still stand today.
(A) resilient (B) combustible (C) malleable (D) perishable (E) solid
malleable：capable of being shaped or bent or drawn out容易改变的
19．callous: sympathetic/ mature 无情冷淡的:有同情心的
callous：not caring that other people are suffering
We were shocked at the callous disregard for human life.
20．calumniate: vindicate 中伤，诽谤:维护，辩护
（来自于词根cal，cal这个词根一是表示石头，因为古时候古人用石头来计数，所以cal这个词根还表示计算，计算：calculate, calendar, calculus 石头：calcify，calcium, callous
The prosecutor was so frustrated by his lack of credible or convincing evidence that when describing the defendant during the trial he shamefully resorted to__.
22．capricious/whimsical <> constant/ deliberate/ pertinacious/ resolute/ steadfast
反复无常的 <> 坚定的/深思熟虑的
Capricious: (1)likely to change your mind suddenly or behave in an unexpected way,指可能会突然改变思想或者以一种你没有预料倒的方式来行动。
She was as capricious as her mother has been.
（2）changing quickly and suddenly，文学用语，指快速且突然改变，如 a capricious wind
(1) Because he is so__, we can never predict what course he will take at an moment.
(2) During the opera’s most famous aria the tempo chosen by the orchestra’s conductor seemed ______, without necessary relation to what had gone before.
(3) A story’s theme is sometimes___, that is, stated directly by the author, but more often it is ___.
(A) obvious . . indisputable
(B) capricious . . dramatic
(C) convoluted . . simple
(D) enigmatic . . veiled
(E) explicit . . implied
注意！这道题很多同学会错选B，但你要选B的话，显然没有合适的情景，而且capricious的反义词基本上是constant/ pertinacious/ resolute/ steadfast（坚定的）、deliberate深思熟虑的，而没有dramatic这个义项，对dramatic的解释见第二讲内容。
（4）The new reflecting pool was__, dazzling onlookers with its___ in the bright sunlight.
(A) unassuming, audaciousness
(B) capricious, innocuousness
(C) tawdry, precociousness
(D) vivacious, insipidness
(E) resplendent, incandescence
25．castigate: extol/flatter/accolade 严厉地批评:赞美
categorical：having no exceptions or restrictions
（1）The college president made the ----statement that no student athlete on academic probation, not even the top-scorer of the varsity team, would be allowed to participate in intercollegiate sports.
(A) impertinent (B) uncontroversial
(C) opinionated (D) categorical
（2）But the scientists who resist the inbred cheetah dogma point out that many zoo cats bear healthy cubs, are perfectly fertile and vigorous, and have great variation in their immune systems. While the cheetah may look genetically tenuous when its DNA is appraised, by such real-life measurements as litter size, cub health, and immune response, the cheetah is perfectly fit for the millennium. The work of these scientists calls into question the validity of a strictly molecular approach to the sometimes murky science of species preservation, and it strongly suggests that scientists do not yet understand why certain genetic patterns detected in laboratory tests translate into the genuine strengths and weaknesses of a wild animal. The work also indicates that zoos having trouble propagating cheetahs in captivity perhaps should not blame the animal’s DNA, but rather their own ineptitude at the science of animal breeding.
Question: the author’s observation about propagating cheetahs in captivity is best described as
(A) a stereotypical response
(B) a candid assessment
(C) a categorical denial
(D) an unsettling anecdote
(E) an emotional plea
categorical：having no exceptions or restrictions, categorical是个语意相当重的单词，而且看到那个perhaps就知道这还只是一个猜测，，排除了C，就好选择B了。在这里之所以把这段文章放到这里，是希望同学们对自己的单词量还有背单词速度和方法都起到一个督促的作用，可以说这段文章给你们15分钟的时间你们可能才能了解到这篇短文章的内在逻辑，而在这之前，很多同学会因为许多生词挡在理解的关上，比如cub野兽，
27．catholic: narrow 宽容的:狭隘的
（1）The play closed after only a week because critics gave the performance ------- reviews.
(A) innocuous (B) caustic (C) rave (D) gaudy (E) contrite
（2）Irving acknowledged that Columbus may have had some faults, such as his part in enslaving and killing people, but offered the palliating explanation that these were “errors of the times.”
29．cautious: rash 谨慎的:鲁莽的
30．celebrity: obscurity 名人:不为人所知的人
31．cement: fracture /sever结合:破碎
33．certainty: indecision 确实:含糊
certitude: obscurity 确实:含糊
34．chagrin: cheerful/delight/elated 懊恼:高兴的
Thus, when Mary Kingsley returned from West Africa in 1895, she was chagrined to discover that she was being hailed as a “new woman” because of her travels. Despite her often outspoken distaste for the “new women” agitating for greater freedom, the travel books that she and others had written sill suggested, as Paul Fussell has argued, “an implicit celebration of freedom.”
35．challenge: buttress 挑战:支持
36．champion: disparage /oppose拥护:蔑视，贬低
37．chronic: sporadic 习惯性的:零星发生的
38．circuitous: direct 迂回:直接
39．circumlocution: express succinctly 曲折的陈述:简洁的表达
40．circumscribed: unlimited 限制的:无限制的
The residents of the town lived__; no one indulged in wild or__ behavior.
(A) rambunctious, indecent
(B) extravagant, excessive
(C) secluded, scrupulous
(D) circumscribed, impulsive
(E) irreverent, animated
41．circumspect: audacious/reckless 慎重的:鲁莽的
Some activists believe that because the health-care system has become increasingly---- to those it serves, individuals must ---- bureaucratic impediments in order to develop and promote new therapies.
(A) attuned.. avoid
(B) inimical.. utilize
(C) unresponsive ..circumvent
(D) indifferent.. supplement
(E) sensitized.. forsake
这里circumvent是以智取胜的意思。beat through cleverness and wit
43．claim: renounce (根据权利)要求:放弃权利
44．clarity: opaque 清晰:不透明
Translucent （luc光）半透明的，transparent 透明的 opaque不透明 （op眼睛，myopic近视的，synoptic摘要的）
The sheer bulk of data from the mass media seems to overpower us and drive us to _______ accounts for an easily and readily digestible portion of news.
A) insular B) investigative C) synoptic
D) subjective E) sensational
45．clement: pitiless 仁慈的:无情的
46．clumsy: adept 笨拙的:灵巧的
笨拙的：clumsy ungainly awkward cumbersome ponderous
灵巧的：adroit agile astute swift ambidextrous adept
Jack’s essay was not__ one, as it had been written hurriedly the night before from a careless___ of information and research data.
(A) a rambling, collage
(B) an ambiguous, development
(C) a coherent, hodgepodge
(D) an amorphous, morass
(E) an unintelligible, harangue
Hodgepodge: a motley assortment of things 混杂，繁杂
48．collect: scatter 收集:散播
Collective 集体的 collectivism <> individualism 集体主义: 个人主义
49．commodious: constricted/cramped 宽敞的:压缩的/狭促的
50．commonplace: exceptional 普通的:异常的
51．compassion: indifference 同情:不关心
53．（1）complaisance: obstinacy 柔顺:固执
（2）composure: discomfiture 平静：难堪，不安
After Bob had broken the punch bowl, we sensed the extent of his ----from the way he shamefacedly avoided meeting his hostess’s eye.
(A) composure (B) perspicacity
(C) discomfiture (D) forbearance
54．（1）concealed: conspicuous 隐藏的：明显的
Concealed: not accessible to view 隐藏的，隐蔽的
Because its bookkeepers altered some figures and completely fabricated others, the company’s financial records were entirely__.
这是一道错误率相当高的题目，很多同学会选择D，spurious：not based on facts or good thinking and is likely to be incorrect，spurious：建立在虚假的事实基础上的东西，伪造的，虚假的，从这道题给你提供的背景来说是spurious
（2）Frederick Church built a large Moorish home which was____ as a visitor came up the long driveway, but came into view suddenly at the end.
（3）It is said that the custom of shaking hands originated when primitive men held out empty hands to indicate that they had no ____ weapons and were thus____ disposed.
(A) lethal, clearly
(B) concealed, amicably
(D) murderous, ill
(E) secret, finally
先讲一个单词，disposed：（1）be well/favorably/kindly disposed to sb./sth. to like or approve of someone or something 对…友好的，可以接受的
（1） be disposed to=inclined to 倾向于…
（2）concede: refuse to grant 承认:拒绝承认
55．concentrate: dilute solution 浓缩:稀释的溶液
56．conceptual: concrete 概念上的:具体的
We need to move from a conceptualization of gender as an attribute or style of behavior to an understanding of gender as something people do in social interaction.