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托福听力:你不得不知道的现代艺术之表现主义
2020-10-16 17:37   作者:许鑫   阅读量:

  你不得不知道的现代艺术之表现主义

  我们在托福听力的艺术类对话和讲座中经常会听到一些时间。比如我们经常会听到19~~年,或20世纪某个时期,那么这个时间则给到我们一个非常重要的讯息, 这是一篇关于现代艺术(modern art)的听力。


  20世纪以前,写实(realism)仍旧是绘画等各种艺术形式的主题。然而到了20世纪初,两场空前的世界大战摧毁了西方文明和秩序。西方艺术家眼中看到了一个混乱 无序 无意义的世界,他们将这种情感带入到艺术创作中,艺术开始向抽象怪诞这一方向发展, 并逐渐衍生出各种各样的现代艺术流派。其中,艺术从具象到抽象的一个非常重要的过渡,便是表现主义(expressionism)。

  表现主义的艺术家们崇尚纯粹的主观精神世界的展示,他们打破传统,不拘泥于一切外在的形式,一切都是为了宣泄内心的情感。他们欣赏保罗·高更Paul Gauguin、文森特·梵高Vincent van Gogh等后印象派画家情感充沛,极具生命力的创作。因此我们也可以说梵高是表现主义的先驱。


微信图片_20201016173611.jpg

  (梵高Vincent van Gogh《星空The Starry Night》)


  那么从绘画层面上来说, 表现主义有哪些特点呢?


  首先就是大胆的用色,使用大量鲜艳的色彩(bright color)和强烈的对比色彩(contrasting color);其次,是对客观事物的夸张扭曲和变形(distortion) 。表现主义的绘画让人感觉没有技巧,只是随意随性地表达着自己的感受。他们的作品很少有欢快的主题,大多都是表现对于战后现实的恐惧、 失望、 焦虑、和苦闷,看起来总是带着那么些淡淡的忧伤。


  代表画家:爱德华·蒙克 Edvard Munch 《呐喊SCREAM》《生命之舞 DANCE OF LIFE》;  古斯塔夫·克林姆特Gustav Klimt 《吻KISS》

  (古斯塔夫·克林姆特Gustav Klimt 《吻KISS》)

  (爱德华·蒙克 Edvard Munch 《呐喊SCREAM》)

  (爱德华·蒙克 Edvard Munch《生命之舞 DANCE OF LIFE》)


  最后我们来看一段托福听力文章中对于表现主义的描述:

  Neel combined realism with, well, actually, with expressionism.


  The artist is depicting subjective emotions, showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist rather than the outward form. So the image itself might be distorted or exaggerated in some way. The expression overrides objective representation. Ok, so, Alice Neel combined these two styles。


  First, Neel's use of bold color. All right? You'll see she uses color to convey emotion and feeling, like the subjects' clothing for instance, it appears brighter than it really is. And the subjects, the people being portrayed, Neel paid special attention to faces. The way she paints the eyes and how the faces are portrayed, these are quite realistic, like the realists' work. But another thing Neel did was use elongated, sort of stretchy figures.


  So, those realistic faces and eyes, but bright, distorted figures. It is a mix. You'll see that her portraits do reflect reality. Realism was important in the sense that she wanted to show people as they really were, much like a photographer would. But Neel wasn't satisfied with photo-like realism, she went beyond that. And this is where expressionism comes in. She believed in capturing the whole person, not just what was on the surface, that's where the expressionists' distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects' character or personality.


  现在是不是觉得理解起来也很容易啦。更多关于托福考试的个性化问题敬请咨询新航道官网


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