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SAT备考 | SAT文法知识点第6期

2022-06-14     作者 :    

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SAT文法知识系列栏目说明:每期分享3-5个文法知识点,帮助大家更好地备考SAT。

作者:刘龙

一、动词

非谓语动词

1. 含义:

1.含义:

简单句或主从句中,不作谓语的动词。

例如:

1 Tom is a student studying SAT.

2 Mary is a student helped by his friends.

3 To get a higher mark, John needs to study harder than other students.

2. 用法:

划重点

非谓语动词有三种形式:不定式、动名词和分词,其中动名词不涉及考点,所以重点看不定式和分词(现在分词和过去分词)的考点。

非谓语动词可以作的成分很多,比如作主语、作宾语、作宾补、作定语和作状语,但SAT考点中重点考察作定语和作状语的情况。

(1) 不定式作定语

(2) 不定式作状语

(3) 分词作定语

(4) 分词作状语

(1) 不定式作定语

a) 定义:不定式作为修饰限定语,修饰前面的名词。

b) 动词形式:名词+to do.

c) 用法:名词后的不定式无需加标点符号

d) 例句:

i. I have a book to read.

ii. Tom was the only person to affect this disease.

iii. Her persistence to lose weight inspires me.

(2) 不定式作状语

a) 定义:不定式作为修饰限定语,修饰主句的主语:在句首时,需要加逗号与主句隔开。

b) 动词形式:To do+名词,主句. 或 名词+to do

c) 用法:名词后的不定式无需加标点符号

d) 例句:

i. To achieve his target, John needs to run at least 30 minutes every day.

ii. Tom was the only person to affect this disease.

iii. Her persistence to lose weight inspires me.

(3) 分词作定语

a) 定义:分词作为后置定语,修饰前面的名词。

b) 动词形式:名词+分词:分词+doing或分词+done

c) 用法:名词与后面的分词之间无需加标点符号。

d) 例句:

i. The man watching TV feels boring after two hours later.

ii. The windows wet with rain need to clean when it stops raining. 

iii. Mary cheated by his friends was sad and angry.

(4) 分词作状语

a) 定义:不定式作为修饰限定语,修饰主句的主语:在句首时,需要加逗号与主句隔开。

b) 动词形式:分词+名词,主句. 或 名词+分词

c) 用法:名词后的分词无需加标点符号;在句首的分词要修饰主句主语。

d) 例句:

i. After watching TV for two hours, the man feels boring.

ii. Beaten by his father, Tom starts to cry. 

iii. Her work finished within one hours was indeed in high quality.

真题检测

真题检测1

(2017-10NA-Q30) The photo is then immersed in water and warmed. In conclusion, it is coated with lavender oil to give it (a protective finish).

A. NO CHANGE

B. oil— to give it (a protective finish) 

C. oil, to give, it (a protective finish)

D. oil to give it (a protective finish)

解析:通过lavender oil to give it看出是不定式作定语的考点,根据不定式作定语无需添加标点符号的规则,排除选项中带有标点符号的选项,所以排除A/B/C三个选项,所以选D。

注:2017-10NA-Q30为2017年10月北美真题30题。

真题检测2

(2017-05AS-Q7) Electronic health record system can actually reduce errors by, for instance, cross-referencing drug information, this provides doctors with automatic warnings about adverse drug interactions.

A. NO CHANGE

B. information to provide 

C. information; providing

D. information, provides

解析:通过information to provide看出是不定式作定语的考点,根据不定式作定语无需添加标点符号的规则,排除选项中带有标点符号的选项,具体错因为:A和D项需要加连接词,而C项分号后需要前后一致,分号后为分词而非句子,所以排除A/C/D三个选项,所以选B。

注:2017-05AS-Q7为2017年5月亚太真题7题。

真题检测3

(2018-03AS-Q27) The education of all pharmacists should be expanded to include additional medical training, and they should be empowered to perform even more of the tasks, traditionally performed by primary care physicians.

A. NO CHANGE

B. tasks, traditionally performed by, 

C. tasks traditionally performed, by

D. tasks traditionally performed by

解析:通过tasks traditionally performed by看出是过去分词作后置定语的考点,根据分词作定语无需添加标点符号的规则,排除选项中带有标点符号的选项,所以排除A/B/C三个选项,所以选D。

注:2018-03AS-Q27为2018年3月亚太真题27题。

真题检测4

(2017-05NA-Q32) After hearing a lineup of well-known, famous art critics testify to the aesthetic value and originality of nonrepresentational art like Bird in Space, the courts ruling was in favor of Brancusi.

A. NO CHANGE

B. the ruling of the court was in favor of Brancusi.

C. the court ruled in favor of Brancusi.

D. Brancusi was the favorable receiver of the court’s ruling.

解析:通过after hearing a lineup看出是现在分词作前置定语的考点,根据在句首的分词要修饰主句主语的规则,排除不能发出hearing动作的主语,即A项的the courts, B项的the ruling和C项的the court,所以排除A/B/C三个选项,所以选D。

注:2018-3AS-Q27为2018年3月亚太真题27题。


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